The 16th century was a time of unprecedented change, the very beginning of the modern era of science, a time of great exploration, religious and political urmoil, and extraordinary literature.
In 1543, Copernicus
published his theory that the Earth was not the center of the universe, rather, the Earth and the other planets orbited around the Sun. Called the Copernican Revolution, his theory forever changed astronomy, and ultimately changed all of science.
During 16th century, advancements were made in the theories of mathematics, cosmography, geography and natural history. 16th century inventions related to the fields of engineering, mining, navigation and the military arts were prominent.
About picture: Barometer shown at the upper left corner.
- Wheel-lock musket invented.
- The first flush toilets appeared.
- Leonardo DaVinci designs a horizontal water wheel.
- Pocket watch invented by Peter Henlein.
- Urs Graf invents etching.
- A graphite pencil invented by Conrad Gesner.
- Bottled beer invented in London.
- Englishmen, William Lee invents a knitting machine called the stocking frame.
- Dutchmen, Zacharias Janssen invents the compound microscope.
The 17th century, also referred to as the 1600s, spanned the years 1601 to 1700.
During the 17th century major changes in philosophy and science took place. Before the 17th century began, science and scientists were not truly recognized. In fact, at first people like the 17th century genius Isaac Newton were called natural philosophers, since there was no concept of the word scientist for most of the 17th century.
The intrusion of newly invented machines became part of the daily and economic lives of 17th century folk. During the 17th century, the science of chemistry developed from medieval alchemy, and the 17th century science of astronomy evolved from astrology.
By the end of the 17th century, a scientific revolution had occurred and science had become an established mathematical, mechanical, and empirical body of knowledge. Galileo Galilei
, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Isaac Newton
, and others had become noted scientists.
- Hans Lippershey invents the first refracting telescope.
- The earliest human-powered submarine invented by Cornelis Drebbel.
- Frenchmen, Jean-Baptiste Denys invents a method for blood transfusion.
- Giovanni Branca invents a steam turbine.
- W. Gascoigne invents the micrometer.
- Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer.
- Otto von Guericke invents a air pump.
- Cuckoo clocks made in Furtwangen, Germany, in the Black Forest region.
- James Gregory invents the first reflecting telescope.
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz invents a calculating machine.
- Denis Papin invents the pressure cooker.